Theory of Photographic Picture 2

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Code Completion Credits Range Language Instruction Semester
304TF2 ZK 1 2T Czech summer

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Name of lecturer(s)


Learning outcomes of the course unit

Introduction of students to the theory fundamentals of photographic depiction.

Mode of study

Lectures are supplemented with samples and extensive image material.

Prerequisites and co-requisites

Intended for bachelor study students.

Course contents

This course covers issues of photographic images as physical-chemical process in relation to the psychophisiology of visual perception. The introduction is devoted to light and radiation, photometrics, exponometrics, characteristics of vision,color vision theory and psycho-physical phenomena influencing the resulting perception. Photochemistry and the production of photographic materials of the previous history of B/W and color photography, subsequent sensitometrics and methods of assessing photographic material characteristics; densitometrics, methods of assessing photograph microstructure - graininess, resolution, sharpness and contrast transfer.

This course includes technical exercises.


  1. History of photography

Camera obscura, beginning of photochemistry, Niepce, Daguerre, Talbot, Scott Archer - wet Colloid process, discovery of gelatines.

Dry tables, optical sensibilation, beginnings of color photography - direct and indirect methods.

  1. Photography photochemical fundamentals

Effect of light absorption - molecular activation, quantum yields, basic photochemical laws : Grotthuss-Draper Law, Bunsen-Roscoe Law, Einstein's law of photochemical equivalence. Latent image-crystal constrution AgHal, crystal grating, germinal sensitifiy grating faults, latent image formation theory. light-sensitive suspense preparations, the role of gelatin as a protective colloid in AgHal precipitation, the photographic emlusion „maturing“ stage, particle size and distribution, various crystal forms and compositions. Structure and characteristics of photograph material. Chemical processing of photographic layers - chemically induced oxidation reduction issue considerations, physical and chemical development manners, composition of developers for chemical developing - developing materials, alkali, conservation and regeneration materials and anti-masking materials, super-additives. Fixation. Inversion materials processing. Particular procedures. Photographic phenomena - other influential factors besides light, double-exposure phenomena, developing phenomena, hypersensitivity, latency.

  1. Sensitometry

Development of sensitometric procedures - the work of Hurter and Driffield. Sensitometry - fundamental part, sensitometry with time and intensivity modulation, light sources - their stabilization, calibration, maintenance, modulating exposure - time, intensity -/absorption, opening, fundamental requirements.

  1. Densitometry

Concept of optical density, permeation and reflective density, primary density measurement, density types - according to geometric measured volume lighting - according to the spectral nature of the measured light - according to receptor characteristic, density of color shots - as a whole, partially, supplementary, substitutive, main, adjunct - their mutual relationships, list of important densitometer types.

  1. Interpretation of sensitometer measurements

Material gradation characteristics - sensitometric characteristics, basics of density, masking, minimal and maximal density, gradient, slope, practical and sensitometric sensitivity, sensitivity criteria, color and spectrum sensitivity, sensitometric characteristics of three-layer color materials, partial characteristics.

  1. Micro-sensitometrics

Sensitive layer structure, shot development structure, structural granularity, sujective and optical, granularity measurements, light-sensitivity resolution ability measurement, sharpness, relation of resolution ability to sharpness, measuring sharpness - acutance, modulation transfer function, list of micro-sensitometric devices.

Recommended or required reading

Literatura povinná: (včetně signatury knihovny FAMU)

ČSN 36 0000: Světelné technické názvosloví (6A 3999-4000)

ČSN 01 1718: Měření barev (6A 4001)

ČSN 66 6401: Fotografická senzitometrie (6A 3333)

Janoušková K.: Fyziologie zraku (1965 - 6C 958-60, 1970 - 6C 1592-95)

Pecák J.: Subjektivní aspekty reprodukce barevným filmem (kabinet obrazové techniky)

Urban M.: Základy senzitometrie (1968 - 6C 1572-3)

Jahoda M.: Barevná senzitometrie (1968 - 6C 1169) in Sborník prací VÚZORT

Informační zpravodaj VÚZORT -1969, č. 3,4 / Kvalita optických a fotografických obrazů (kabinet obrazové techniky)

Katalogy filmových materiálů: Eastman KODAK, FUJI (kabinet obrazové techniky)

Katalogy filtrů: KODAK Filters (kabinet obrazové techniky)

Kubát J.: Základy fotochemie, Akademia 1969

Šimek J.: skripta Fotografická technika - Základy fotochemie

Junge K.W., Hübner G.: Fotografická chemie (SNTL 1987)

Literatura doporučená :

Evans, R.M.: An Introduction to Color (1948 - 6B 859, 1959 - 6B 757, 1965 - 6B 1214)

Evans, R.M.: Eye, Film and Camera in Color Photography (1959 - 6B 756)

Langford, M.J.: Advanced Photography (1972 - 6B 1350)

sborník Principles of Color Sensitometry (1955 - 6B 865)

Ilinski, M.: Sensytometria fotograficzna i filmowa materialow czarno-bielych (1955 - 6B 420)

Horder, A.: The Manual of Photography,formerly (6B 1281)

Horder, A.: The Ilford Manual of Photography (1971)

Morávek, J.: Senzitometry (1965, in Sborník prací VÚZORT, str. 71 - 6B 1169)

Gorochovskij, J.N., Levenberg, T.M.: General Senzitometry (6B 1471)

Jiráček M.: Fotografická optika (1960 - 6A 2119)

Palivec: Světlo, optika a osvětlovanie vo fotografii (1963 - 6A 2390)

Assessment methods and criteria

Written text: 75% correct answers is a requirment for the oral exam

The final result of the exam: test - 10%, oral exam - 90%



Schedule for winter semester 2019/2020:

The schedule has not yet been prepared

Schedule for summer semester 2019/2020:

The schedule has not yet been prepared

The subject is a part of the following study plans